A transparent sheet placed over originals or artwork, allowing the designer to write instructions and\or indicate a second colour for placement.
Paper made from pulp containing little or no acid which allows it to resist deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper
An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching.
Colour produced by light falling onto a surface, as compared to subtractive colour. The additive primary colours are red, green and blue.
ISO paper size 210 x 297mm used for Letterhead
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to With the Grain. Also called Across the Grain and Cross Grain See also Grain Direction
Pen-shaped tool that sprays a fine mist of ink or paint to retouch photos and create continuous-tone illustrations.
Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration
An offset printing plate having a treated surface in order to reduce wear for extended use.
Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface of coated paper as sheets leave a press. Also called dust, offset powder, powder and spray powder
Roughest finish offered on offset paper.
Water based coating applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art
At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests concerning original art provided. AAs are considered an additional cost to the client usually.
(1) To print on the second side of a sheet which has already been printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.
Copy pasted up on the mounting board of a mechanical, as compared to overlay art. Also called base mechanical
Negative made by photographing base art.
The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate basis weight in the United States and Canada.
The weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage and ream weight
Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.
Category of paperboard ranging in thickness from 15 to 48 points.
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that receives the inked image from the plate and transfers it to the surface to be printed.
BleedPrinting that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.
A page number not printed on the page. (In book printing, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number)
Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
Usually in book printing. The joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.
Sticking together of printed sheets causing damage when the surfaces are separated.
An enlargement, usually used with graphic images or photographs
Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colours show as blue images on white paper. Because ‘blueline’ is a generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke.
A description or commentary of an author or book content positioned on the book jacket.
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and post cards. Also called paperboard
The main text of work not including the headlines.
Blocks of repetitive type used and copied over and over again.
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper
Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered.
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogues, advertising and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.
(1) A repeating registration problem in the printing stage of production. (2) When a customer is unhappy with the results of a printing project and refuses to accept the project.
General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders and displays.
The term used to indicate work printed on a large sheet of paper.
A photographic print created on bromide paper.
Carton of paper from which some of the sheets have been sold. Also called less carton
The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing and using a metallic powder.
To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new colour. Such an overlap is called a build, colour build, stacked screen build or tint build
Thickness of paper relative to its basic weight.
A dot or similar marking to emphasise text.
To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover. Also called burst bind, notch bind and slotted bind
Register where ink colours meet precisely without overlapping or allowing space between, as compared to lap register. Also called butt fit and kiss register
To subcontract for a service that is closely related to the business of the organization. Also called farm out. Work that is bought out or farmed out is sometimes called outwork or referred to as being out of house.
Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.
To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.
Business using a process camera to make Photostats, halftones, plates and other elements for printing. Also called prep service and trade camera service
The weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage and ream weight
Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.
Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL
Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight.
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a case bound book.
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished hot metal drum while the coating is still wet.
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogues and magazines.
Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun and wind, making printed images look dusty. Also called crocking
Strength of a colour as compared to how close it seems to neutral grey. Also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation
The main text of work not including the headlines.
A mark used to indicate closing space between characters or words. Usually used in proofing stages.
Abbreviation for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key (Black) – the four process colours.
Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimetre).
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories: cast, gloss, dull and matte.
To organise printed matter in a specific order as requested.
Mostly in book printing – specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage.
Refers to the amounts of process colours that simulate the colours of the original scene or photograph.
Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type. Also called shells
In multicolour printing, the point, line or space at which one ink colour stops and another begins. Also called break for colour
Unwanted colour affecting an entire image or portion of an image.
Strip of small blocks of colour on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called colour bar, colour guide and standard offset colour bar.
To adjust the relationship among the process colours to achieve desirable colours.
Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colours. Also called HLS and HVS tables
Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and software designed for image assembly, colour correction, retouching and output onto proofing materials, film or printing plates. Abbreviated CEPS
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-colour process printing.
Brand name for an overlay colour proof. Sometimes used as a generic term for any overlay colour proof.
Way of categorising and describing the infinite array of colours found in nature.
Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and rotation
Change in image colour resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-colour process printing.
Film (transparent) used as art to perform colour separations.
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name)
Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different
The second or additional flat(s) used when making composite film or for two or more burns on one printing plate.
Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colours appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays. Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that indicate colour breaks.
Film made by combining images from two or more pieces of working film onto one film for making one plate.
Proof of colour separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof
Simulation of a printed piece complete with type, graphics and colours. Also called colour comprehensive and comp
To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called cure, mature and season
Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame used to make contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and plates. Also called platemaker and vacuum frame
All photographs and illustrations that have a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated contone
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.
Business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays.
Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.
Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.
Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a book to increase strength of binding. Also called gauze, mull and scrim
Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust
See also Shingling
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks
Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper.
Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.
Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.
Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100.
One of the four process colours. Also known as process blue
Technique of reducing the amount of storage required to hold a digital file to reduce the disk space the file requires and allow it to be processed or transmitted more quickly.
To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface. Also called tool
Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge
Instrument used to measure density. Reflection densitometers measure light reflected from paper and other surfaces; transmission densitometers measure light transmitted through film and other materials.
Difference between the darkest and lightest areas of copy. Also called contrast ratio, copy range and tonal range
The weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage and ream weight
Technique of using a personal computer to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated DTP
Hues identified by wavelength or by their place in systems such as developed by CIE. ‘Device independent’ means a colour can be described and specified without regard to whether it is reproduced using ink, projected light, photographic chemistry or any other method.
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing.
To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.
Chemical process of reproducing line copy and making halftone positives ready for paste-up.
Chemical process of reproducing line copy and making halftone positives ready for paste-up.
Dot created by a computer and printed out by a laser printer or imagesetter. Digital dots are uniform in size, as compared to halftone dots that vary in size.
Colour proof made by a laser, ink jet printer or other computer-controlled device without needing to make separation films first. Abbreviated DDCP
A letter fold at the side of one of the creases, an indentation occurs.
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain
Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of the screen ruling being used. There is no unit of measurement to express dot size. Dots are too large, too small or correct only in comparison to what the viewer finds attractive.
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch
Duotone printed from two halftones, one shot for highlights and the other shot for midtones and shadows.
To print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink.
To expose film or a plate twice to different negatives, creating a composite image.
A method of recording electronically (disk, CD, floppy) using a modified frequency to allow more data storage.
Halftone double burned onto one plate from two halftones, one shot for shadows, the second shot for midtones and highlights.
Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of the image. Doubling may be caused by problems with paper, cylinder alignment, blanket pressures or dirty cylinders.
Considered as “dots per square inch,” a measure of output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate specified for a job. Also called pulldown
Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights by overexposure during camera work.
Halftone in which contrast has been increased by eliminating dots from highlights.
Phenomenon of printed ink colours becoming less dense as the ink dries.
Using metal plates in the printing process, which are etched to .15mm creating a right reading plate, printed on the offset blanket transferring to paper without the use of water.
To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.
Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper
Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish
Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup
Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each shot to emphasise different tonal values in the original.
Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually of different colours. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper
Offset press made for quick printing.
Brand name for photographic paper used to make blue line proofs. Often used as alternate term for blueline.
General term referring to a prepress system based on computers.
Assembly of a composite image from portions of other images and/or other page elements using a computer.
Mechanical exclusively in electronic files.
To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool
Film on which emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer) or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make a plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also called E up/down and face down/face up
Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands. Abbreviated EPS file
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers
Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films, printing plates and stencils.
Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.
Abbreviation for envelope.
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another.
Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same. Also called comparable stock
Smooth finish on uncoated book paper; smoother than eggshell, rougher than smooth.
Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender
The individual performing or creating the “estimate.”
Using chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film.
Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge
Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general style.
Halftone in one ink colour printed over screen tint of a second ink colour. Also called dummy duotone, dougraph, duplex halftone, false duotone, flat tint halftone and halftone with screen
Inks with colours that retain their density and resist fading as the product is used and washed.
Component of a printing press that moves paper into the register unit.
Soft woven pattern in text paper.
Side of the paper that was not in contact with the Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to wire side.
Ink colour used in addition to the four needed by four-colour process.
Thickness of film. The most common gauge for graphic arts film is 0.1 mm.
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers and graphic papers
Screen with ruling of 150 lines per inch (80 lines per centimetre) or more.
Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.
Refers to ability of film to be registered during stripping and assembly. Good fit means that all images register to other film for the same job.
Costs that remain the same regardless of how many pieces are printed. Copyrighting, photography and design are fixed costs.
Diagram of the flats for a publication showing imposition and indicating colours.
Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.
Method of printing on a web press using rubber or plastic plates with raised images. Also called aniline printing because flexographic inks originally used aniline dyes. Abbreviated flexo
To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.
Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush
Leaf, at the front and back of a case bound book that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.
Used in making type more legible by lowering density of an image, while allowing the image to show through.
To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp
Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp
A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.
With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur, usually located at the top edges.
Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout
The actual page number in a publication.
Each side of a signature. Also spelled forme
Size, style, shape, layout or organisation of a layout or printed product.
Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business forms. Also called register bond
Roller(s) that come in contact with the printing plate, bringing it ink or water.
Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO
In the case book arena, the binding process which involves folding, rounding, backing, headbanding and reinforcing.
Trough or container, on a printing press, that holds fluids such as ink, varnish or water. Also called duct.
Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to the non-image area. Also called dampener solution
Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-colour images. Also called colour process printing, full colour printing and process printing.
Paper made from cooked wood fibres mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities, as compared to groundwood paper. Also called woodfree paper
A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.
Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.
Black separation made to have dots throughout the entire tonal range of the image, as compared to half-scale black and skeleton black. Also called full-range black
Proof of type from any Source, whether metal type or photo type. Also called checker and slip proof.
A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping layers.
Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint image.
Soft woven pattern in text paper.
Mostly in book printing, gold leafing the edges of a book.
Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) in such a way as the ink will dry without penetration.
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.
General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.
Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly, not in distinct steps. Also called degrade, gradient, ramped screen and vignette.
Predominant direction in which fibres in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction
Paper in which the fibres run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper
Paper whose fibres run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper
Basis weight of paper in grams per square metre (gsm).
The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing on paper and other substrates.
Film in which the emulsion yields high contrast images suitable for reproduction by a printing press, as compared to continuous-tone film. Also called litho film and repro film
Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colours and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.
Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting.
Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with millions of tiny wells that hold ink.
Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that accurately, reproduce a neutral grey image.
Technique of replacing grey tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta films, made while colour separating, with black ink. Abbreviated GCR. Also called achromatic colour removal
Number of distinct grey tones that can be reproduced by a computer.
Strip of grey values ranging from white to black. Used by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film and plates. Also called step wedge
Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products.
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.
Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge
Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically.
The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square metre).
In book printing, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.
Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances.
Black separation made to have dots only in the shadows and midtones, as compared to full-scale black and skeleton black.
Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.
Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. The halo itself is also called a fringe. Also called halation
Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared to soft dots.
Mechanical consisting of paper and/or acetate and made using paste-up techniques, as compared to electronic mechanical.
At the top of a page, the margin.
Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other pages.
Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able to print coated paper.
Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye
Colour reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations, as compared to four-colour process.
Photo in which the most important details appear in the highlights.
Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.
Perfect bound cover scored 3mm from the spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine.
Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation, one of the colour-control options often found in software, for design and page assembly. Also called HVS
Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble causes incomplete draw-down during contact platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.
Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet
A specific colour such as yellow or green.
The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage.
Laser output device using photosensitive paper or film.
Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.
Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the plate or blanket, thus forming the image. Also called impression roller
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee’s name on business cards. Also called surprint
Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral grey
Reservoir, on a printing press, that holds ink.
Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout
Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing
Form (side of the press sheet) whose images all appear inside the folded signature, as compared to outer form.
Department of an agency, business or association that does printing for a parent organisation. Also called captive printer and in-house printer.
Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels, having inked areas lower than non-inked areas. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing
Colour proof of separations shown on one piece of proofing paper, as compared to an overlay proof. Also called composition proof, laminate proof, plastic proof and single-sheet proof
Printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.
A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Abbreviation of International Standard Book Number
Paper that didn’t meet specifications when produced, has been discontinued, or for other reasons is no longer considered first quality.
A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping.
Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Also called docket, production order and work order
A vibration machine with a sloping platform to even-up stacks of printed materials.
Abbreviation for black in four-colour process printing, hence the ‘K’ in CMYK.
Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding lines
Negative or plate that prints the most detail. Thus, the image that guides the register of images from other plates. Also called key printer
To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of self-adhesive paper. Also called face cut
Lightest possible impression that will transfer ink to a substrate.
Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large envelopes.
Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing colour, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.
Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Opposite of Portrait)
Register where ink colours overlap slightly, as compared to butt register.
Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.
Ink that will not fade or blister as the paper on which it is printed is used in a laser printer.
Method of perfect binding that allows a publication to lie fully open. Also known as Lay Flat Perfect Binding
The edge of a sheet of paper feeding into a press.
A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and desired.
Amount of space between lines of type.
One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.
Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business records. Also called record paper
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold
In North America, 8 1/2′ x 11′ sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.
Directions about a specific matter (illustrations) and how to use them. In regard to maps and tables, an explanation of signs (symbols) used.
Method of printing from raised surfaces, either metal type or plates in which the surfaces have been etched away from image areas. Also called block printing
Book paper with basis weight less than 60 gsm.
Substance in trees that holds cellulose fibres together. Free sheet has most lignin removed; groundwood paper contains lignin.
Any high-contrast image, including type, as compared to continuous-tone copy. Also called line art and line work
Negative made from line copy.
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.
Method of printing using plates in which the image areas attract ink and the non-image areas repel ink. Non-image areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.
Area on a mechanical within which images will print. Also called safe area
A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and artwork to create a “sole” entity symbol of that specific unit.
Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication (e.g., trim-4-drill-3).
Proof of a halftone or colour separation that is not assembled with other elements from a page, as compared to composite proof. Also called first proof, random proof, scatter proof and show-colour proof.
Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copy, film, proofs, plates and printing. Also called glass and linen tester
Photo in which the most important details appear in the shadows.
Paper holding a high-gloss finish only on one side.
One of the four process colours.
Order for paper that a mill makes to the customer’s specifications, as compared to a mill order or stock order.
Die that applies pressure during embossing or debossing. Also called force card
An author’s original form of work (hand written, typed or on disk) submitted for publication.
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Instructions written usually on a “dummy.”
To prevent light from reaching part of an image, therefore isolating the remaining part. Also called knock out
Paper or plastic plate used on a duplicating press.
A form of a four-colour process proofing system.
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.
Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other copy complete with instructions to the printer. A hard mechanical consists of paper and/or acetate, is made using paste-up techniques, and may also be called an artboard, board or paste-up. A soft mechanical, also called an electronic mechanical, exists as a file of type and other images assembled using a computer.
To bind using a comb, coil, ring binder, post or any other technique not requiring gluing, sewing or stitching.
Color breaks made on the mechanical using a separate overlay for each color to be printed.
Lines or patterns formed with dots creating artwork for reproduction.
Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.
Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose colour and gloss simulate metal.
In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared to highlights and shadows.
The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates are expressed in mils.
Phenomenon of droplets of ink being thrown off the roller train. Also called flying ink
A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.
Mostly used over phone lines, a device that converts electronic stored information from point A. to point B
Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.
Paper size (7′ x 10′) and envelope shape often used for personal stationery.
Spotty, uneven ink absorption. A mottled image may be called mealy. Also called sinkage
A specific type of glue used for book binding and personal pads needing strength.
Printing in more than one ink colour (but not four-colour process). Also called polychrome printing
Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper in any specific size.
Very light brown colour of paper. May also be called antique, cream, ivory, off-white or mellow white.
Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to gathered. Also called inset
Grey with no hue or cast.
Paper used in printing newspapers. Considered low quality and “a short life use”.
Flaw in a photograph or halftone that looks like a drop of oil or water.
In the book binding process, a stage where air is expelled from its contents at the sewing stage.
Web press without a drying oven, thus not able to print on coated paper. Also called cold-set web and open web
Printing using lasers, ions, ink jets or heat to transfer images to paper.
Light blue that does not record on graphic arts film, therefore may be used to preprint layout grids and write instructions on mechanicals. Also called blue pencil, drop-out blue, fade-out blue and non-repro blue
Printing on products such as coasters, pencils, balloons, golf balls and ashtrays, known as advertising specialties or premiums.
Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
A specific lightweight type (kind) of paper usually used in the past for air mail. Seldom used today (in the typewriter era).
Hardware and software that links desktop publishing systems with colour electronic prepress systems.
Form (side of a press sheet) containing images for the first and last pages of the folded signature (its outside pages) as compared to inner form.
Halftone in which background has been removed or replaced to isolate or silhouette the main image. Also called knockout halftone and silhouette halftone
Layer of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof. Acetate overlays are used to separate colours by having some type or art on them instead of on the mounting board. Tissue overlays are used to carry instructions about the underlying copy and to protect the base art.
Colour proof consisting of polyester sheets laid on top of each other with their image in register, as compared to integral proof. Each sheet represents the image to be printed in one colour. Also called celluloid proof and layered proof
To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint
Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.
One side of a leaf in a publication.
Total number of pages that a publication has. Also called extent
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page complete with elements such as headings, rules and folios.
In book printing, the numbering of pages.
Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to spot colour. The painted sheet refers to the final product, not the press sheet, and means that 100 percent coverage results from bleeds off all four sides.
One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.
A printing plate made of strong and durable paper in the short run offset arena (cost effective with short runs).
Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.
Any sheet larger than A3.
Chipboard with another paper pasted to it.
To paste copy to mounting boards and, if necessary, to overlays so it is assembled into a camera-ready mechanical. The mechanical produced is often called a paste-up.
Proofreader mark meaning printer error and showing a mistake by a typesetter, prepress service or printer as compared to an error by the customer.
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover.
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press and perfector
On a “dummy” marking where the perforation is to occur.
Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.
Engraving done using photochemistry.
Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones. Often used as alternate term for photostat. Abbreviated PMT
Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones. Often used as alternate term for PMT.
Phenomenon of ink pulling bits of coating or fibre away from the surface of paper as it travels through the press, thus leaving unprinted spots in the image area.
Artwork, used in a previous job, to be incorporated in a current job.
Small holes (unwanted) in printed areas because of a variety of reasons.
Technique of registering separations, flats and printing plates by using small holes, all of equal diameter, at the edges of both flats and plates.
Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device. Also called pel
Printing method whose image carriers are level surfaces with inked areas separated from non-inked areas by chemical means. Planographic printing includes lithography, offset lithography and spirit duplicating.
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.
Stripped negatives or positives fully prepared for platemaking.
Colour that the customer considers satisfactory even though it may not precisely match original samples, scenes or objects.
Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colours in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colours, not PMS Colours.
Abbreviation for photomechanical transfer.
An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite of Landscape)
Photocopy or PMT of a photo or illustration made to size and affixed to a mechanical.
Film that prevents light from passing through images, as compared to negative film that allows light to pass through. Also called knockout film
To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of loose sheets.
Camera work, colour separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing. Also called preparation
Any colour proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press proof.
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.
Event at which make-ready sheets from the press are examined before authorising full production to begin.
Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the job. Also called strike off and trial proof.
Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.
Usually in book printing – consecutive pages as they appear on a flat or signature.
Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads.
Any process that transfers to paper or other substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.
Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.
Assembly of fountain, rollers and cylinders that will print one ink colour. Also called colour station, deck, ink station, printer, station and tower
Camera used to photograph mechanicals and other camera-ready copy. A small, simple process camera may be called a stat camera. Also called copy, camera and graphic arts camera
The colours used for four-colour process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.
Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared to make-ready.
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks
Round device used to calculate percent that an original image must be reduced or enlarged to yield a specific reproduction size. Also called percentage wheel, proportion dial, proportion wheel and scaling wheel
Paper made in weights, colours and surfaces suited to books, magazines, catalogues and free-standing inserts.
Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer and other professionals associated with a printing job and whether the job meets those expectations.
Printing using small sheetfed presses, called duplicators, using cut sizes of bond and offset paper.
Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong percentage content of “cotton rags.”
Technique of putting ink colours next to each other in the same ink fountain and oscillating the ink rollers to make the colours merge where they touch, producing a rainbow effect.
Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.
Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would see the pages, as compared to printer spread.
500 sheets of paper.
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
Products, such as fabrics, illustrations and photographic prints, viewed by light reflected from them, as compared to transparent copy. Also called reflex copy
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.
Printing method im which image carriers are surfaces with two levels having inked areas higher than non-inked areas. Relief printing includes block printing, flexography and letter press.
Ability of a device, such as an imagesetter, to produce film or plates that yield images in register.
General term for xerography, diazo and other methods of copying used by designers, engineers, architects or for general office use.
Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium.
An image, such as the GATF Star Target, that permits evaluation of resolution on film, proofs or plates.
Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying colour or paper to show through and form the image. The image ‘reverses out’ of the ink colour. Also called knockout and liftout
Abbreviation for Red, Green, Blue, the additive colour primaries.
Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it is written. Also describes a photo in which the orientation looks like the original scene, as compared to a flopped image.
Printing press which passes the substrate between two rotating cylinders when making an impression.
To case bind with a rounded (convex) spine, as compared to flat back bind.
Mask on a mechanical, made with rubylith, that creates a window on film shot from the mechanical.
Line used as a graphic element to separate or organise copy.
Map or drawing given by a printer to a stripper showing how a printing job must be imposed using a specific press and sheet size. Also called press layout, printer’s layout and ruleout
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.
Electronic device used to scan an image.
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease
Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal line of the press sheet. The common screen angles for separations are black 45 degree, magenta 75 degree, yellow 90 degree and cyan 105 degree.
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print. Also called screen percentage.
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Number of rows or lines of dots per inch or centimetre in a screen for making a screen tint or halftone. Also called line count, ruling, screen frequency, screen size and screen value.
Colour created by dots instead of solid ink coverage. Also called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone
Placing signatures or inserts in magazines or catalogues according to demographic or geographic guidelines.
Usually in book printing – a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout.
A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently.
Art with elements that print in the base colour on one surface and elements that print in other colours on other surfaces. Also called pre-separated art
Usually in the four-colour processing – separate film holding images of one specific colour per piece of film. Black, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. Can also separate specific PMS colours through film.
Printing method in which image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or metal that allow ink to pass through some portions and block ink from passing through other portions. Serigraphic printing includes screen and mimeograph.
Business using imagesetters to make high resolution printouts of files prepared on microcomputers. Also called output house and prep service
Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet to the underside of another as they lie in the delivery stack of a press. Also called offset
Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared to tint.
Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to midtones and high-lights.
Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press.
Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates. Also called work and back
Allowance, made during paste-up or stripping, to compensate for creep. Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution. Also called stair stepping and progressive margins
To bind by stapling through sheets along one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire
Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times, to become part of a book, magazine or other publication.
Compound mixed with paper or fabric to make it stiffer and less able to absorb moisture.
Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the “printed run” for a variety of reasons.
Halftones dots with halos.
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.
Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted to a particular category of products.
Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated as Specs.
Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of colour.
Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail, as compared to a diffuse highlight. Also called catchlight and dropout highlight
Back or binding edge of a publication
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind
Technique of putting ink colours next to each other in the same ink fountain and printing them off the same plate. Split fountains keep edges of colours distinct, as compared to rainbow fountains that blend edges.
One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.
Film (transparent) used as art to perform colour separations.
Background of 60 percent neutral grey and light that measures 5000 degrees Kelvin the colour of daylight on a bright day. Also called lighting standards
Short for photostat, therefore a general term for an inexpensive photographic print of line copy or halftone.
Method used by printers to ensure quality and delivery times specified by customers. Abbreviated SPC
Prepress technique of exposing an image in a precise, multiple pattern to create a flat or plate. Images are said to be stepped across the film or plate.
Popular sizes, weights and colours of papers available for prompt delivery from a merchant’s warehouse.
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory at a warehouse, as compared to a mill order.
Score created by pressing a string against paper, as compared to scoring using a metal edge.
To assemble images on film for platemaking. Stripping involves correcting flaws in film, assembling pieces of film into flats and ensuring that film and flats register correctly. Also called film assembly and image assembly
Alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to bond papers. Also called sub weight.
In book printing, hot die, foil or other means in creating an image on a case bound book.
Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Yellow, magenta and cyan. In graphic arts, these are known as process colours because, along with black, they are the inks colours used in colour-process printing.
Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.
Paper calendered using alternating chrome and fibre rollers to produce a smooth, thin sheet. Abbreviated SC paper
Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again on the same.
A book in a variety of forms, indicating specific stock in specific colours in a specific thickness.
Abbreviation for Specifications for Web Offset Publications – specifications recommended for web printing of publications.
Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.
Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such as badges and file folders.
Computer file format used to store images from scanners and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF
Densities of the four process inks as recommended for various printing processes and grades of paper. See also Total Area Coverage
Concerning a printing project’s basic details in regard to its dimensions. A standard layout.
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use ‘text’ to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.
Method of printing using colourless resin powder that takes on the colour of underlying ink. Also called raised printing
Initial ideas jotted on virtually anything in regard to initial concept of a future project.
Screening or adding white to a solid colour for results of lightening that specific colour.
Usually in book printing, adding an additional page(s) beyond the normal process (separate insertion).
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.
Total of the dot percentages of the process colours in the final film. Abbreviated TAC. Also called density of tone, maximum density, shadow saturation, total dot density and total ink coverage
Plate that accents or prints a colour that four-colour process printing cannot reproduce well enough or at all. Also called kiss plate
Service bureau, printer or bindery working primarily for other graphic arts professionals, not for the general public.
Positive photographic image on film allowing light to pass through. Also called chrome, colour transparency and tranny. Often abbreviated TX
To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps
The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper
Technique of making colour separations that increases the amount of cyan, magenta or yellow ink in shadow areas. Abbreviated UCA
Technique of making colour separations such that the amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink is reduced in midtone and shadow areas while the amount of black is increased. Abbreviated UCR
A system to protect unique work from reproducing without knowledge from the originator. To qualify, one must register their work and publish a © indicating registration.
Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof. Also called edge enhancement and peaking
Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression on a single sheet. “Two up” or “three up” means printing the identical piece twice or three times on each sheet.
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.
The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a colour. Also called brightness, lightness, shade and tone
Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.
Somewhat rough, toothy finish.
Brand name for high-contrast photographic paper.
Small area or room that is set up for proper viewing of transparencies, colour separations or press sheets. Also called colour booth. See also Standard Viewing Conditions
Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
Halftone whose background gradually and smoothly fades away. Also called degrade
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.
Abbreviation for volatile organic compounds, petroleum substances used as the vehicles for many printing inks.
To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens, and other press components.
Unusable paper or paper damage during normal make-ready, printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage.
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Split of the paper as it travels through a web press, causing operators to rethread the press.
Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through the press.
Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to dry trap.
Side of the paper that rests against The Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to felt side.
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to Against the Grain. See also Grain Direction
Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as calendered or supercalendered.
Intermediate film that will be copied to make final film after all corrections are made. Also called buildups
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured paper.
An image that is backwards when compared to the original